Application of variable frequency microwave (VFM) to adhesives

Ku, Harry S. and Siores, Elias and Ball, James A. R. (2005) Application of variable frequency microwave (VFM) to adhesives. Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, 19 (11). pp. 1467-1484. ISSN 0920-5071

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Microwave processing of adhesives is a relatively new technology alternative that provides new approaches for enhancing material properties as well as economic
advantages through energy savings and accelerated product development. Alternative in the sense that most adhesives are normally cured in ambient conditions or in ovens.
However, the most commonly used facilities for microwave processing of materials operate on fixed frequency microwaves (FFM), e.g., 2.45 GHz.
This paper presents a review of microwave technologies, processing methods and industrial applications, using variable frequency microwave (VFM) facilities. The technique offers rapid, uniform and selective heating over a large volume at a high energy coupling efficiency. This is accomplished using a preselected bandwidth sweeping around a central frequency by employing tunable frequency sources. Successful applications of these modern facilities include finding out the optimum cavity conditions of glass or carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastic matrix composites, and of adhesives, e.g., two-part five-minute Araldite, and the joining of the above-mentioned composite materials
with, or without, primers. Finding out the optimum cavity conditions of a material has helped identify the best frequency range to process the material using microwave
energy and by means of the VFM facility. Microwave energy has been used to rapidly cure several types of two-part epoxy based adhesives, e.g., Araldite. Bond strengths obtained using variable frequency microwave (VFM)techniques are compared with adhesive joints cured in fixed frequency microwave (FFM) conditions.

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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Author version deposited in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Historic - Faculty of Engineering and Surveying - Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering (Up to 30 Jun 2013)
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Historic - Faculty of Engineering and Surveying - Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering (Up to 30 Jun 2013)
Date Deposited: 11 Oct 2007 00:18
Last Modified: 02 Jul 2013 22:31
Uncontrolled Keywords: microwave processing; adhesives; variable frequency microwave (VFM); energy coupling; fixed frequency microwave (FFM); matrix composites; adhesives; bandwidth; carbon fiber reinforced plastics; energy conservation; epoxy resins; product development; thermoplastics; tuning
Fields of Research (2008): 10 Technology > 1005 Communications Technologies > 100505 Microwave and Millimetrewave Theory and Technology
09 Engineering > 0912 Materials Engineering > 091209 Polymers and Plastics
09 Engineering > 0915 Interdisciplinary Engineering > 091502 Computational Heat Transfer
Fields of Research (2020): 40 ENGINEERING > 4006 Communications engineering > 400608 Wireless communication systems and technologies (incl. microwave and millimetrewave)
40 ENGINEERING > 4016 Materials engineering > 401609 Polymers and plastics
40 ENGINEERING > 4012 Fluid mechanics and thermal engineering > 401204 Computational methods in fluid flow, heat and mass transfer (incl. computational fluid dynamics)
Socio-Economic Objectives (2008): E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970109 Expanding Knowledge in Engineering

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