The reproducibility of acquiring three dimensional gait and plantar pressure data using established protocols in participants with and without type 2 diabetes and foot ulcers

Fernando, Malindu and Crowther, Robert G. and Cunningham, Margaret and Lazzarini, Peter A. and Sangla, Kunwarjit S. and Buttner, Petra and Golledge, Jonathan (2016) The reproducibility of acquiring three dimensional gait and plantar pressure data using established protocols in participants with and without type 2 diabetes and foot ulcers. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research, 9 (4). pp. 1-12.

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Fernando et al. 2016. The reproducibility of acquiring 3D gait and plantar pressure data. Jfootankleres.pdf
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Background: Several prospective studies have suggested that gait and plantar pressure abnormalities secondary to diabetic peripheral neuropathy contributes to foot ulceration. There are many different methods by which gait and plantar pressures are assessed and currently there is no agreed standardised approach. This study aimed to describe the methods and reproducibility of three-dimensional gait and plantar pressure assessments in a small subset of participants using pre-existing protocols.

Methods: Fourteen participants were conveniently sampled prior to a planned longitudinal study; four patients with diabetes and plantar foot ulcers, five patients with diabetes but no foot ulcers and five healthy controls. The repeatability of measuring key biomechanical data was assessed including the identification of 16 key anatomical landmarks, the measurement of seven leg dimensions, the processing of 22 three-dimensional gait parameters and the analysis of four different plantar pressures measures at 20 foot regions.

Results: The mean inter-observer differences were within the pre-defined acceptable level (<7 mm) for 100% (16 of 16) of key anatomical landmarks measured for gait analysis. The intra-observer assessment concordance correlation coefficients were > 0.9 for 100% (7 of 7) of leg dimensions. The coefficients of variations (CVs) were within the pre-defined acceptable level (<10%) for 100% (22 of 22) of gait parameters. The CVs were within the pre-defined acceptable level (<30%) for 95% (19 of 20) of the ontact area measures, 85% (17 of 20) of mean plantar pressures, 70% (14 of 20) of pressure time integrals and 55% (11 of 20) of maximum sensor plantar pressure measures.

Conclusion: Overall, the findings of this study suggest that important gait and plantar pressure measurements can be reliably acquired. Nearly all measures contributing to three-dimensional gait parameter assessments were within predefined acceptable limits. Most plantar pressure measurements were also within predefined acceptable limits; however, reproducibility was not as good for assessment of the maximum sensor pressure. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the reproducibility of several biomechanical methods in a heterogeneous cohort.

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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: First place winner for the USQ School-Specific 2016 Publication Excellence Awards for Journal Articles - School of Health and Wellbeing. Published version made available in accordance with Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0.
Faculty / Department / School: Current - Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences - School of Health and Wellbeing
Date Deposited: 22 Jul 2016 03:23
Last Modified: 06 Apr 2017 02:12
Uncontrolled Keywords: diabetic foot; reproducibility of results; gait; locomotion; plantar pressure; foot ulcer
Fields of Research : 11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1106 Human Movement and Sports Science > 110601 Biomechanics
Identification Number or DOI: 10.1186/s13047-016-0135-8

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