Adaptation of the Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (3D-WS) for the Korean cultural context

Kim, Seungyoun and Knight, Bob G. (2015) Adaptation of the Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (3D-WS) for the Korean cultural context. International Psychogeriatrics, 27 (2). pp. 267-278. ISSN 1041-6102


Background: Previous research on wisdom has suggested that wisdom is comprised of cognitive, reflective, and affective components and has developed and validated wisdom measures based on samples from Western countries. To apply the measurement to Eastern cultures, the present study revised an existing wisdom scale, the three-dimensional wisdom scale (3D-WS, Ardelt, 2003) for the Korean cultural context.

Methods: Participants included 189 Korean heritage adults (age range 19–96) living in Los Angeles. We added a culturally specific factor of wisdom to the 3D-WS: Modesty and Unobtrusiveness (Yang, 2001), which captures an Eastern aspect of wisdom. The structure and psychometrics of the scale were tested. By latent cluster analysis, we determined acculturation subgroups and examined group differences in the means of factors in the revised wisdom scale (3D-WS-K).

Results: Three factors, Cognitive Flexibility, Viewpoint Relativism, and Empathic Modesty were found using confirmatory factor analysis. Respondents with high biculturalism were higher on Viewpoint Relativism and lower on Empathic Modesty.

Conclusion: This study discovered that a revised wisdom scale had a distinct factor structure and item content in a Korean heritage sample. We also found acculturation influences on the meaning of wisdom.

Statistics for USQ ePrint 28204
Statistics for this ePrint Item
Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Permanent restricted access to published version in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.
Faculty / Department / School: Current - Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences - School of Psychology and Counselling
Date Deposited: 22 Apr 2016 04:59
Last Modified: 28 Jul 2016 03:22
Uncontrolled Keywords: wisdom; culture; 3D-WS; Korean heritage adults
Fields of Research : 17 Psychology and Cognitive Sciences > 1701 Psychology > 170109 Personality, Abilities and Assessment
11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1117 Public Health and Health Services > 111714 Mental Health
Socio-Economic Objective: E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970117 Expanding Knowledge in Psychology and Cognitive Sciences
Identification Number or DOI: 10.1017/S1041610214002178

Actions (login required)

View Item Archive Repository Staff Only