Arsenic removal by small-scale reverse osmosis units

Hoinkis, Jan and Patzold, Christian and Bundschuh, Jochen (2010) Arsenic removal by small-scale reverse osmosis units. In: The global arsenic problem: challenges for safe water production. Arsenic in the Environment, 2. Taylor & Francis (CRC Press), London, United Kingdom, pp. 147-156. ISBN 978-0-415-57521-8

Abstract

Over the past three decades, the occurrence of high concentration of arsenic (As) in drinking water has been recognized a severe global public-health concern (Bhattacharya et al. 2002, Mandal and Suzuki 2002, Ng et al. 2003). The global As-contamination scenario has
changed considerably in recent years, with the discovery of new As affected sites. The delayed health effects of exposure to As, the lack of common definitions and of local awareness, as well as poor reporting in affected areas are all major problems in determining the extent of
the arsenic-in-drinking-water problem (WHO 2008).

Arsenic is one of the most toxic elements that exists. Humans may be exposed to As through food, water and air. Particularly, As exposure caused by groundwater used for drinking in different parts of the world has emerged as an issue of great concern. Its adverse effects depend strongly on the dose and duration of exposure. Specific dermatological effects are characteristic of chronic exposure to As. Dermatological features are melanosis (pigmentation) and keratosis (rough dry papular skin lesions). Chronic exposure to As may also cause
reproductive, neurological, cardiovascular, respiratory hepatic, haematalogical and diabetic effects in humans (National Research Council 1999). Inorganjc As can cause skin, bladder and lung cancer (National Research Council 2001).

In most cases there may be a variety of technology options that can provide communities with sustainable and cost-effective safe drinking water. However, in all cases, the technologies should meet several basic technical and socioeconomic criteria such as:
• Production of the required water quality and quantities;
• Robustness and operational safety;
• No adverse effect on the environment;
• Economic feasibility;
• Institutional capacity (production and delivery of materials, training etc.);
• Social acceptance.


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Item Type: Book Chapter (Commonwealth Reporting Category B)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Permanent restricted access to published version due to publisher copyright policy. Print copy not held in the USQ Library.
Faculty / Department / School: Historic - Faculty of Engineering and Surveying - Department of Agricultural, Civil and Environmental Engineering
Date Deposited: 17 Oct 2014 03:11
Last Modified: 30 Oct 2014 02:35
Uncontrolled Keywords: arsenic; removal; drinking water; reverse osmosis
Fields of Research : 05 Environmental Sciences > 0502 Environmental Science and Management > 050204 Environmental Impact Assessment
04 Earth Sciences > 0406 Physical Geography and Environmental Geoscience > 040603 Hydrogeology
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/26220

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