Energy-efficient small-scale reverse osmosis units: a promising approach for arsenic removal from drinking water

Hoinkis, J. and Islam, R. and Akhtarul Islam, M. and Korejba, W. and Ding, D. and Bundschuh, J. (2010) Energy-efficient small-scale reverse osmosis units: a promising approach for arsenic removal from drinking water. In: 3rd International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment (AS 2010): Arsenic in Geosphere and Human Diseases, 17-21 May 2010, Tainan, Taiwan.


More than 100 million people world-wide are exposed to high arsenic levels through the water in underground wells. Arsenic (As) is one of the most toxic elements that exist. Its adverse effects depend strongly on the dose and duration of exposure. With regard to the toxic effects of As on humans and other living organisms, it is necessary to take into account the permissible levels of As in drinking water and its chemical speciation when establishing the regulatory standards. The WHO guideline value adopted for As in drinking water is 10 ug/L (WH0, 2008).
A variety of membrane techniques among them nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO), may be used for As removal (for overview see Shih, 2005 & Uddin et al., 2007). NF and RO have the advantage using very 'dense' membranes in such a way that other dissolved contaminants can be retained along with As, resulting in a very high water quality. Some time ago several companies brought small-scale marine RO units (known as watermakers) to the market. They are applied to produce drinking water from seawater on boats and it is a well-proven technology, which works reliably at remote locations under difficult conditions (e.g high salt concentration). Some of them can be powered by sustainable energy sources, such as PV or wind wheels, or can be operated manually.

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Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Commonwealth Reporting Category E) (Paper)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK. Permanent restricted access to published version due to publisher copyright policy.
Faculty / Department / School: Historic - Faculty of Engineering and Surveying - Department of Agricultural, Civil and Environmental Engineering
Date Deposited: 08 Oct 2014 04:37
Last Modified: 05 Jan 2015 03:02
Uncontrolled Keywords: arsenic removal; drinking water; reverse osmosis units; nanofiltration
Fields of Research : 09 Engineering > 0904 Chemical Engineering > 090410 Water Treatment Processes
04 Earth Sciences > 0406 Physical Geography and Environmental Geoscience > 040603 Hydrogeology
09 Engineering > 0905 Civil Engineering > 090508 Water Quality Engineering
Socio-Economic Objective: D Environment > 96 Environment > 9611 Physical and Chemical Conditions of Water > 961101 Physical and Chemical Conditions of Water for Urban and Industrial Use

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