Hourigan, Daniel (2011) Cinema. In: Encyclopedia of consumer culture. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA. United States, pp. 163-165. ISBN 978-0-8728-9601-7


Cinema as the mass culture art form that we know today began with technological advances in French photography by Joseph Nicephore Niepce in 1827 and Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre in 1837. By 1895, Auguste and Louis Lumiere screened their first moving pictures. These silent moving pictures were usually accompanied by a live musical performance and quickly became popular but nonetheless minor attractions that were added to vaudeville shows; vaudeville being, at the time, the dominant theatrical medium. With the onset of World War I, many Europeans fled the fighting in Europe to make a new life in the United States. These European immigrants brought cinema with them, and soon penny theater venues known as nickelodeons appeared throughout America. Unlike vaudeville shows, which treated cinema as a passing novelty or fashion, nickelodeons were a concerted effort that gave cinema the main stage for public consumption.

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Item Type: Book Chapter (Commonwealth Reporting Category B)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Copyright 2011 Sage Publications. Permanent restricted access to published version in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Historic - Faculty of Arts - School of Humanities and Communication
Date Deposited: 04 Mar 2015 00:47
Last Modified: 09 Aug 2017 04:21
Uncontrolled Keywords: early French cinema; movie theatres; picture theatres; nickelodeans; popular culture
Fields of Research : 19 Studies in Creative Arts and Writing > 1902 Film, Television and Digital Media > 190201 Cinema Studies
16 Studies in Human Society > 1608 Sociology > 160805 Social Change
20 Language, Communication and Culture > 2002 Cultural Studies > 200212 Screen and Media Culture
Socio-Economic Objective: C Society > 95 Cultural Understanding > 9502 Communication > 950205 Visual Communication
Identification Number or DOI: 10.4135/9781412994248.n65

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