Osteoporosis and its association with non-gonadal hormones involved in hypertension, adiposity and hyperglycaemia

Poudyal, Hemant and Brown, Lindsay (2013) Osteoporosis and its association with non-gonadal hormones involved in hypertension, adiposity and hyperglycaemia. Current Drug Targets, 14 (14). pp. 1694-1706. ISSN 1389-4501

Abstract

Osteoporosis is a high-prevalence disease, particularly in developed countries, and results in high costs both to the individual and to society through associated fragility fractures. There is an urgent need for identification of novel drug targets and development of new anti-osteoporotic agents. Between 30 and 80% of osteoporotic fractures cannot be prevented despite current treatments achieving relative fracture risk reduction of up to 20%, 50%, and 70% for non-vertebral, hip and spine fractures, respectively. Traditionally, the decline in gonadal hormones has been studied as the sole hormonal determinant for the loss of bone mineral density in osteoporosis. However, recent studies have identified receptors for numerous non-gonadal hormones such as PTH, angiotensin II, leptin, adiponectin, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 on the osteoblast lineage cells that directly regulate bone turnover. These hormones are also involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome risk factors, particularly hypertension, type-II diabetes and obesity. By activating their respective receptors on osteoblastic lineage cells, these hormones appear to act through a common mechanism by down-regulating receptors for activation of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) and up-regulating osteoprotegerin (OPG) with inverse responses for adiponectin. Receptors for amylin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide and ghrelin and have also been identified on the osteoblast lineage cells although the roles of these receptors in bone turnover are controversial or poorly studied. Moreover, bone turnover may be independently regulated by modulation of osteoclast-osteoblast function and bone marrow adiposity. Leptin appears to be the only hormone that is a known regulator of both bone mineralisation and bone adiposity.


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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers. Published version restricted in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.
Faculty / Department / School: Historic - Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences - School of Health, Nursing and Midwifery
Date Deposited: 01 Feb 2014 07:19
Last Modified: 11 Jan 2017 07:35
Uncontrolled Keywords: leptin; RANK/RANKL signalling; osteoblasts; osteoclasts; osteoporosis
Fields of Research : 11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1103 Clinical Sciences > 110308 Geriatrics and Gerontology
06 Biological Sciences > 0606 Physiology > 060699 Physiology not elsewhere classified
11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1103 Clinical Sciences > 110314 Orthopaedics
Socio-Economic Objective: E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences
Identification Number or DOI: 10.2174/1389450119999990001
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/24647

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