Naturally occurring arsenic in terrestrial geothermal systems of western Anatolia, Turkey: potential role in contamination of freshwater resources

Bundschuh, Jochen and Maity, Jyoti Prakash and Nath, Bibhash and Baba, Alper and Gunduz, Orhan and Kulp, Thomas R. and Jean, Jiin-Shuh and Kar, Sandeep and Yang, Huai-Jen and Tseng, Yu-Jung and Bhattacharya, Prosun and Chen, Chien-Yen (2013) Naturally occurring arsenic in terrestrial geothermal systems of western Anatolia, Turkey: potential role in contamination of freshwater resources. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 262. pp. 951-959. ISSN 0304-3894

Abstract

Arsenic (As) contamination in terrestrial geothermal systems has been identified in many countries worldwide. Concentrations higher than 0.01mg/L are detrimental to human health. We examined potential consequences for As contamination of freshwater resources based on hydrogeochemical investigations of geothermal waters in deep wells and hot springs collected from western Anatolia, Turkey. We analyzed samples for major ions and trace element concentrations. Temperature of geothermal waters in deep wells showed extreme ranges (40 and 230°C), while, temperature of hot spring fluids was up to 90°C. The Piper plot illustrated two dominant water types: Na-HCO3 - type for geothermal waters in deep wells and Ca-HCO3 - type for hot spring fluids. Arsenic concentration ranged from 0.03 to 1.5mg/L. Dominance of reduced As species, i.e., As(III), was observed in our samples. The Eh value ranged between -250 and 119mV, which suggests diverse geochemical conditions. Some of the measured trace elements were found above the World Health Organization guidelines and Turkish national safe drinking water limits. The variation in pH (range: 6.4-9.3) and As in geothermal waters suggest mixing with groundwater. Mixing of geothermal waters is primarily responsible for contamination of freshwater resources and making them unsuitable for drinking or irrigation.


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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Published version deposited in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.
Faculty / Department / School: Current - Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences - School of Agricultural, Computational and Environmental Sciences
Date Deposited: 28 Nov 2013 02:06
Last Modified: 15 Sep 2014 00:37
Uncontrolled Keywords: arsenic; environmental contamination; geothermal wells; hot springs; Turkey
Fields of Research : 04 Earth Sciences > 0404 Geophysics > 040404 Geothermics and Radiometrics
09 Engineering > 0905 Civil Engineering > 090508 Water Quality Engineering
03 Chemical Sciences > 0399 Other Chemical Sciences > 039901 Environmental Chemistry (incl. Atmospheric Chemistry)
Socio-Economic Objective: D Environment > 96 Environment > 9611 Physical and Chemical Conditions of Water > 961103 Physical and Chemical Conditions of Water in Fresh, Ground and Surface Water Environments (excl. Urban and Industrial Use)
Identification Number or DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.01.039
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/24299

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