A survey of short selling in Canada

Lento, Camillo and Kozyra, James (2011) A survey of short selling in Canada. In: Handbook of short selling. Elsevier (Academic Press), Waltham, MA. United States, pp. 125-135. ISBN 978-012387724-6


This chapter provides insights into the regulatory framework that governs short sales and the taxation of short sales in Canada, and discusses recent trends in short selling activity in Canada. In Canada, the Investment Industry Regulatory Organization of Canada (IIROC) governs most of the activity related to equity short sales through the Universal Market Integrity Rules (UMIR). A proposal was put forward in 2007 to repeal the uptick rule in Canada altogether, however, the market turbulence of 2008 led the IIROC to defer the proposed removal of the uptick rule. Although not part of the IIROC's UMIR, some short selling activity is also prohibited by certain insiders by the Canada Business Corporations Act (CBCA). There are, however, some exceptions to this prohibition that allow insiders to sell short under certain conditions if they own another security convertible into the security sold or an option or right to acquire the security sold. A short sale becomes taxable when the borrowed shares are repurchased and returned to the original owner. Short sales typically have volumes lower than that of the opposing long position in a given security. Short sale volume consisted of 78% of the average trade volume for the TSX and 83% for the TSXV. The lowest level of short sale volume relative to long positions was seen on the CNSX, with an average rate of 52%. UMIR requirements make it necessary to periodically report the short position held in each security on an account-by-account basis. This requirement allows for an analysis of the rates of turnover of short positions and the percentage of securities on a given marketplace that a short position has been undertaken in.

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Item Type: Book Chapter (Commonwealth Reporting Category B)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording,or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the Publisher.
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Historic - Faculty of Business and Law - No Department (1 Jan 2011 - 30 Jun 2013)
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Historic - Faculty of Business and Law - No Department (1 Jan 2011 - 30 Jun 2013)
Date Deposited: 04 Oct 2013 01:17
Last Modified: 30 Aug 2017 03:43
Uncontrolled Keywords: exchange-traded funds; insider short sales; Investment Industry Regulatory Organization of Canada; naked short sales; universal market integrity rules; uptick rule
Fields of Research (2008): 15 Commerce, Management, Tourism and Services > 1502 Banking, Finance and Investment > 150205 Investment and Risk Management
22 Philosophy and Religious Studies > 2201 Applied Ethics > 220102 Business Ethics
Socio-Economic Objectives (2008): B Economic Development > 90 Commercial Services and Tourism > 9001 Financial Services > 900102 Investment Services (excl. Superannuation)
Identification Number or DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-387724-6.00007-6
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/24096

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