Effects of ALA, EPA and DHA in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats

Poudyal, Hemant and Panchal, Sunil K. and Ward, Leigh C. and Brown, Lindsay (2013) Effects of ALA, EPA and DHA in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry , 24 (6). pp. 1041-1052. ISSN 0955-2863

Abstract

We compared the cardiovascular, hepatic and metabolic responses to individual dietary n-3 fatty acids (α-linolenic acid, ALA; eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA; and docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) in a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced model of metabolic syndrome in rats. Additionally, we measured fatty acid composition of plasma, adipose tissue, liver, heart and skeletal muscle in these rats. The same dosages of ALA and EPA/DHA produced different physiological responses to decrease the risk factors for metabolic syndrome. ALA did not reduce total body fat but induced lipid redistribution away from the abdominal area and favorably improved glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and left ventricular dimensions, contractility, volumes and stiffness. EPA and DHA increased sympathetic activation, reduced the abdominal adiposity and total body fat and attenuated insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and left ventricular stiffness but not glucose tolerance. However, ALA, EPA and DHA all reduced inflammation in both the heart and the liver, cardiac fibrosis and hepatic steatosis. These effects were associated with complete suppression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 activity. Since the physiological responses to EPA and DHA were similar, it is likely that the effects are mediated by DHA with EPA serving as a precursor. Also, ALA supplementation increased DHA concentrations but induced different physiological responses to EPA and DHA. This result strongly suggests that ALA has independent effects in metabolic syndrome, not relying on its metabolism to DHA.


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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Published version deposited in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.
Faculty / Department / School: Historic - Faculty of Sciences - Department of Biological and Physical Sciences
Date Deposited: 02 Jun 2013 22:55
Last Modified: 11 Jul 2014 06:00
Uncontrolled Keywords: cardiovascular; chia oil; fish oil; metabolic syndrome; omega-3
Fields of Research : 11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1111 Nutrition and Dietetics > 111103 Nutritional Physiology
11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1101 Medical Biochemistry and Metabolomics > 110199 Medical Biochemistry and Metabolomics not elsewhere classified
10 Technology > 1004 Medical Biotechnology > 100499 Medical Biotechnology not elsewhere classified
Socio-Economic Objective: E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences
Identification Number or DOI: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2012.07.014
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/23563

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