Multiple regression analysis of citrus leaf nitrogen content using hyperspectral technology

Huang, Shuangping and Hong, Tiansheng and Yue, Xuejun and Wu, Weibin and Cai, Kun and Xu, Xing (2013) Multiple regression analysis of citrus leaf nitrogen content using hyperspectral technology. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering , 29 (5). pp. 132-138. ISSN 1002-6819


In order to evaluate the nitrogenous status of citrus trees, non-destructively, accurately and rapidly, the modeling of the nitrogen (N) content prediction based on the reflectance spectra is studied in this paper. Field experiments were conducted on 117 planted Luogang citrus trees in the Crab Village of Guangzhou. The citrus trees were divided into several groups and 1-year standardized management was performed on them. Nitrogenous fertilizer was applied to the citrus trees only during four phenological periods in the year, and each group was treated with various levels of N-fertilization in order to cultivate differentiation samples with varied nitrogenous content. 15 days after each fertilization, fresh and healthy citrus leaves were collected to gather training samples from different growth stages. Hyper-spectrometer ASD FieldSpec was used to detect spectral reflectance while the Kjeldahl method was used to measure the N-content of citrus leaves from the same batch. In this way, each sample is described as an instance-label pair, where a multi-variable vector was used as the descriptor and the ground truth of the nitrogen level was used as the label. The collected samples were used to construct a large-scale dataset, 80% of which were used as the train set and the remaining 20% were used as the test set. PCA (Principle Component Analysis) was applied to the original vectors for dimension reduction and noise removal and SVR (Support Vector Regression) was adopted to build the regression analysis model for predicting the nitrogen level of the citrus trees. The model relied on a training set and was created by mapping the multi-variable vectors to the related ground truths label through SVR. The test set was used to evaluate the performance of the model. The experiment on the test set resulted in reaching a square correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9730, a mean relative error of 0.9033%, and a mean square error (MSE) of 0.090343. Conclusions can be drawn from the experimental results: First, compared with various deformations of spectral data, e.g. first derivative spectrum, second derivative spectrum, reciprocal spectrum, logarithmic spectrum, logarithm of reciprocal spectrum, the original high spectral reflectance data, as the vector-descriptor of the samples, achieved the best experimental result when using the approach in this paper. Second, when the Radial Basis Function (RBF) is used as the kernel for SVR and PCA determines the principal components with the cumulative contribution rate set to 99.9%, the model will achieve the best performance and be the most robust. Third, comparative experiments between our method and other mainstream multivariate regression analysis algorithms demonstrate the validity of using SVR and PCA to do modeling. Experimental results show our method is obviously superior to Partial Least Squares (PLS), Back Propagation (BP) and Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression (SMLR). Finally, using SVR to build the regression model based on PCA-processed data successfully achieved the ideal performance index, which indicates the effectiveness of the proposed method and provides a theoretical basis for the applications of high spectral reflectance in non-destructive nitrogen level detection.

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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Published version deposited in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Historic - Faculty of Engineering and Surveying - Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering (Up to 30 Jun 2013)
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Historic - Faculty of Engineering and Surveying - Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering (Up to 30 Jun 2013)
Date Deposited: 03 Jun 2013 23:05
Last Modified: 10 Sep 2014 00:28
Uncontrolled Keywords: citrus tree leaves; hyperspectral; nitrogen; regression analysis; SVR
Fields of Research (2008): 06 Biological Sciences > 0607 Plant Biology > 060705 Plant Physiology
07 Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences > 0706 Horticultural Production > 070601 Horticultural Crop Growth and Development
06 Biological Sciences > 0601 Biochemistry and Cell Biology > 060112 Structural Biology (incl. Macromolecular Modelling)
09 Engineering > 0999 Other Engineering > 099901 Agricultural Engineering
Fields of Research (2020): 31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3108 Plant biology > 310806 Plant physiology
30 AGRICULTURAL, VETERINARY AND FOOD SCIENCES > 3008 Horticultural production > 300802 Horticultural crop growth and development
31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3101 Biochemistry and cell biology > 310112 Structural biology (incl. macromolecular modelling)
40 ENGINEERING > 4099 Other engineering > 409901 Agricultural engineering
Socio-Economic Objectives (2008): B Economic Development > 82 Plant Production and Plant Primary Products > 8202 Horticultural Crops > 820203 Citrus Fruit
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