Production of biodiesel from Sterculia foetida and its process optimization

Silitonga, A. S. and Ong, H. C. and Masjuki, H. H. and Mahlia, T. M. I. and Chong, W. T. and Yusaf, Talal F. (2013) Production of biodiesel from Sterculia foetida and its process optimization. Fuel: the science and technology of fuel and energy , 111. pp. 478-484. ISSN 0016-2361

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The diminishing supply of fossil fuels reserves and the environmental concerns have made renewable energy an alternative energy source for the future. Sterculia foetida is one of the possible non-edible feedstocks for biodiesel production. This paper explores and examines the potential biodiesel production from S. foetida. Besides, this study also aimed to optimize the biodiesel production parameters by using design of experiment (DOE). The parameters involved in the optimization process were the amount of catalyst, reaction temperature, agitation speed and reaction time. Crude S. foetida oil has high acid value which is 5.11 mg KOH/g. Thus, two stage acid catalyst esterification and base transesterification methods are used to produce biodiesel from S. foetida. The optimum biodiesel conversion efficiency obtained was 93.55% by 1 vol.% of sulfuric acid with 12:1 of methanol to oil ratio at 60 °C and 1200 rpm agitation rate for 3 h. On the other hand, the transesterification process condition is 1 wt.% sodium hydroxide catalyst with 12:1 methanol to oil at 55 °C for 2.5 h. The high viscosity (63.90 mm2/s) of crude S. foetida oil was reduced to 3.96 mm2/s after the transesterification process. Moreover, the properties of the produced S. foetida methyl esters and all the measured properties are within the limits of ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214 specifications. Therefore, S. foetida oil is one of the non-edible feedstocks for biodiesel production.

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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Published online 6 Apr 2013. Permanent restricted access to published version due to publisher copyright policy
Faculty / Department / School: Current - Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences - School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering
Date Deposited: 31 May 2013 05:09
Last Modified: 15 Oct 2014 03:41
Uncontrolled Keywords: algae; biofuel; biomass; engines; biodiesel; esterification; transesterification; physical chemical property
Fields of Research : 09 Engineering > 0902 Automotive Engineering > 090201 Automotive Combustion and Fuel Engineering (incl. Alternative/Renewable Fuels)
09 Engineering > 0999 Other Engineering > 099901 Agricultural Engineering
10 Technology > 1003 Industrial Biotechnology > 100302 Bioprocessing, Bioproduction and Bioproducts
Socio-Economic Objective: E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970105 Expanding Knowledge in the Environmental Sciences
E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970103 Expanding Knowledge in the Chemical Sciences
Identification Number or DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2013.03.051

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