Perceived discomfort in running: scale development and theoretical considerations

Tenenbaum, Gershon and Fogarty, Gerard J. and Stewart, Evan and Calcagnini, Nick and Kirker, Barry and Thorne, Greg and Christensen, Steven A. (1999) Perceived discomfort in running: scale development and theoretical considerations. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17 (3). pp. 183-196.


The aim of this study was to develop a discomfort questionnaire to elicit the feelings and thoughts of people
engaged in running activities. Ten runners who completed a par ticularly demanding 9-km run were asked to express their feelings and thoughts during the run they had just completed. These responses were recorded and later used as the Wrst pool of items (k = 36). The questionnaire was then given to 171 runners in different distance races throughout the 1995 competitive season. These responses were analysed using exploratory factor analytic techniques and Rasch probabilistic analysis, as well as traditional reliability and validity procedures. The final version of the questionnaire consisted of 32 items divided into eight correlated subscales: proprioceptive symptoms, leg symptoms, respiratory diYculties, disorientation, dryness and heat, task completion thoughts, mental toughness, and head or stomach symptoms. These eight categories can be collapsed into three global categories suggested by researchers of pain: sensory-discriminative, motivational-affective and cognitive-evaluative.
Rasch analysis suggested that the motivational-affective and cognitive-evaluative dimensions (i.e. the psychological) are the most experienced (i.e. rated highest). The eight subscales have ecological validity and were found to alter with the demands of different running distances.

Statistics for USQ ePrint 19686
Statistics for this ePrint Item
Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Permanent restricted access to published version due to publisher copyright policy. To cite this article: 26. Tenenbaum, G., Fogarty, G., Stewart, E., Calcagnini, N., Kirker, B., Thorne, G., & Christensen, S. (1999). Perceived discomfort in running: Scale development and theoretical considerations. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17 (3), 183-196.
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Historic - Faculty of Sciences - Department of Psychology
Date Deposited: 28 Sep 2011 05:41
Last Modified: 03 Jul 2013 00:47
Uncontrolled Keywords: discomfort; physical stress; aerobic stress
Fields of Research : 17 Psychology and Cognitive Sciences > 1701 Psychology > 170114 Sport and Exercise Psychology
Socio-Economic Objective: C Society > 92 Health > 9204 Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health) > 920401 Behaviour and Health

Actions (login required)

View Item Archive Repository Staff Only