Basal and squamous cell carcinoma risks for golfers: an assessment of the influence of tee time for latitudes in the northern and southern hemispheres

Downs, Nathan and Parisi, Alfio and Schouten, Peter (2011) Basal and squamous cell carcinoma risks for golfers: an assessment of the influence of tee time for latitudes in the northern and southern hemispheres. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 105 (1). pp. 98-105. ISSN 1011-1344

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This study investigates the influence of tee time to determine the relative basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) risk for weekly single round competition golfers located in the Northern and Southern latitude ranges between 25o, 35o, 45o and 55o. A comparative risk methodology, employing annual erythemally effective ultraviolet (UVE) exposure calculations was used to determine BCC and SCC risk factors for golfers using a regular weekly tee time. Relative risk was found to be proportional to golf tee time with mid morning tee times generally presenting the greatest risk in each latitude range. The greatest contribution toward the risk of developing basal and squamous cell carcinoma was found to occur for golfers beginning weekly rounds mid to late morning, with specific risk factors of 1.47 (BCC) and 1.98 (SCC) in the Northern hemisphere compared with similar maximum risk factors of 1.51 (BCC) and 2.08 (SCC) in the Southern hemisphere occurring at comparable morning tee times. Differences in annual UVE exposure between the golfer and non-golfer were the largest determinant of BCC and SCC risk. Generally, these risks were found to decrease with lower latitude although contribution toward overall risk was influenced strongly by the global time zone of each studied golf course site.

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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Accepted version deposited in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.
Faculty/School / Institute/Centre: Historic - Faculty of Sciences - Department of Biological and Physical Sciences
Date Deposited: 19 Sep 2011 04:36
Last Modified: 25 Aug 2014 21:31
Uncontrolled Keywords: skin cancer; ultraviolet; golf; UV exposure
Fields of Research : 11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1112 Oncology and Carcinogenesis > 111201 Cancer Cell Biology
11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1117 Public Health and Health Services > 111716 Preventive Medicine
04 Earth Sciences > 0401 Atmospheric Sciences > 040103 Atmospheric Radiation
Socio-Economic Objective: C Society > 92 Health > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920117 Skin and Related Disorders
Identification Number or DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2011.07.007

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