Solar ultraviolet radiation incident upon reef snorkelers determined by consideration of the partial immersion of dosimeters in the natural ocean environment

Downs, Nathan and Parisi, Alfio and Schouten, Peter (2011) Solar ultraviolet radiation incident upon reef snorkelers determined by consideration of the partial immersion of dosimeters in the natural ocean environment. Measurement Science and Technology, 22 (1). pp. 1-9. ISSN 0957-0233

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Abstract

Reef snorkeling is potentially a high risk activity for persons visiting tropical and sub-tropical waters due to possible overexposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Measurements and modelled estimates of the UVR received by human subjects are presented for a 10o latitudinal gradient of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef and some Melanesian Islands (15oS to 25oS). A technique is described to measure the erythemally effective UVR received by the neck and the lower back. Measurements were made by application of a hybrid in-air and submerged calibration for polysulphone dosimeters. Measured exposures were used to model UVR exposure distributions at a number of popular snorkeling sites. A total of 11 snorkeling trials were held between 29 September 2009 and 26 January 2010. Exposures measured to the back and expressed relative to the horizontal plane ambient UVR have shown there to be some variation in the UVR distribution, with the neck receiving the greatest proportion of ambient UVR (0.56 ± 0.14 (1σ)), followed by the lower back (0.36 ± 0.14 (1σ)). Similarly high UVR exposures were determined at neck and lower back sites for different seasons, different times of day and over the latitudinal range of the study.


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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Accepted version deposited in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.
Depositing User: Assoc Prof Alfio Parisi
Faculty / Department / School: Historic - Faculty of Sciences - Department of Biological and Physical Sciences
Date Deposited: 28 Mar 2011 02:27
Last Modified: 19 Aug 2014 06:06
Uncontrolled Keywords: UV; snorkeling; water; skin cancer; dosimeter; erythemal
Fields of Research (FOR2008): 02 Physical Sciences > 0299 Other Physical Sciences > 029999 Physical Sciences not elsewhere classified
09 Engineering > 0903 Biomedical Engineering > 090303 Biomedical Instrumentation
04 Earth Sciences > 0401 Atmospheric Sciences > 040103 Atmospheric Radiation
Socio-Economic Objective (SEO2008): E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970102 Expanding Knowledge in the Physical Sciences
Identification Number or DOI: doi: 10.1088/0957-0233/22/1/015801
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/9012

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