Backward recall and benchmark effects of working memory

Bireta, Tamra J. and Fry, Sheena E. and Jalbert, Annie and Neath, Ian and Surprenant, Aimee M. and Tehan, Gerald and Tolan, Georgina Anne (2010) Backward recall and benchmark effects of working memory. Memory and Cognition, 38 (3). pp. 279-291. ISSN 0090-502X

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Abstract

Working memory was designed to explain four benchmark memory effects: the word length effect, the irrelevant speech effect, the acoustic confusion effect, and the concurrent articulation effect. However, almost all research thus far has used tests that emphasize forward recall. In four experiments, we examine whether each effect is observable when the items are recalled in reverse order. Subjects did not know which recall direction would be required until the time of test, ensuring that encoding processes would be identical for both recall directions. Contrary to predictions of both the primacy model and the feature model, the benchmark memory effect was either absent or greatly attenuated with backward recall, despite being present with forward recall. Direction of recall had no effect on the more difficult conditions (e.g., long words, similar-sounding items, items presented with irrelevant speech, and items studied with concurrent articulation). Several factors not considered by the primacy and feature models are noted, and a possible explanation within the framework of the SIMPLE model is briefly presented.


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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Published version deposited in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher (Psychonomic Society) http://www.psychonomic.org/psp/access.html. The Psychonomic Society does not endorse or sponsor USQ eprints.
Depositing User: Assoc Prof Gerry Tehan
Faculty / Department / School: Historic - Faculty of Sciences - Department of Psychology
Date Deposited: 29 Sep 2010 06:32
Last Modified: 03 Jul 2013 00:00
Uncontrolled Keywords: word length effect; irrelevant speech effect; acoustic confusion effect; concurrent articulation effect; backwards recall; memory
Fields of Research (FOR2008): 17 Psychology and Cognitive Sciences > 1702 Cognitive Sciences > 170201 Computer Perception, Memory and Attention
17 Psychology and Cognitive Sciences > 1799 Other Psychology and Cognitive Sciences > 179999 Psychology and Cognitive Sciences not elsewhere classified
17 Psychology and Cognitive Sciences > 1702 Cognitive Sciences > 170204 Linguistic Processes (incl. Speech Production and Comprehension)
Socio-Economic Objective (SEO2008): C Society > 92 Health > 9299 Other Health > 929999 Health not elsewhere classified
E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970117 Expanding Knowledge in Psychology and Cognitive Sciences
Identification Number or DOI: doi: 10.3758/MC.38.3.279
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/8537

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