Bulmer, Andrew C. and Coombes, Jeff S. and Sharman, James E. and Stewart, Ian B. (2008) Effects of maximal static apnea on antioxidant defenses in trained free divers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 40 (7). pp. 1307-1313. ISSN 0195-9131
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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31816a7188
Identification Number or DOI: doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31816a7188
Purpose: To investigate the effects of maximal static apnea on plasma antioxidant status, oxidative stress, and antioxidant enzyme activities in trained free divers. Methods: Blood was taken from apnea-trained (Tr) and control (Con) subjects at baseline (B) and after one (A1), three (A3), and five (A5) apneas. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), uric acid, and bilirubin assays assessed plasma antioxidant status and malondialdehyde (MDA) quantified the oxidative stress response. The activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) were determined at baseline and after the fifth apnea. Results: TEAC was significantly higher in divers versus controls after A1 (P G 0.05). A group effect of SOD activity indicated higher activity throughout the protocol in Tr (mean T SD; Con, 43.2 T 10.1 UIg Hbj1; Tr, 50.1 T 7.3 UIg Hbj1; P = 0.04). With no other group differences, the groups’ data were combined. Apnea significantly increased SOD (B, 44.1 T 11.1 UIg Hbj1; A5, 48.1 T 7.5 UIg Hbj1; P G 0.05) and GPx activity (B, 60.5 T 14.9 UIg Hbj1; A5, 70.1 T 16.0 UIg Hbj1; P = 0.02); however, CAT activity decreased (B, 5.25 T 0.59 UImg Hbj1; A5, 5.00 T 0.53 UImg Hbj1; P = 0.03). MDA was unaffected by apnea (P = 0.32). Conclusions: Trained free divers have increased SOD activity during apnea; however, there is little difference in their antioxidant and oxidative stress responses compared with controls. In both groups, acute changes in antioxidant enzyme activities suggest that they may protect from excessive antioxidant depletion and oxidative stress during apnea.
|Item Type:||Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)|
|Additional Information:||Author version not held.|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||enzymes; superoxide dismutase; glutathione peroxidase, catalase; hypoxia; breath hold|
|Fields of Research (FOR2008):||11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1106 Human Movement and Sports Science > 110602 Exercise Physiology|
|Socio-Economic Objective (SEO2008):||E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences|
|Deposited On:||05 May 2010 23:00|
|Last Modified:||08 May 2010 15:42|
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