Chong, Albert K.-F. (2007) Biology and zoology. In: Fryer, John and Mitchell, Harvey and Chandler, Jim H., (eds.) Applications of 3D measurement from images. Whittles Publishing, Dunbeath, Scotland, pp. 210-224. ISBN 1870325699; 9781870325691
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Photographs have been used to obtain linear measurement of biological and zoological subjects since the invention of photographic emulsion and the pin-hole camera. However, fullscale research on the use of stereo-photographs and the stereoscopic plotter began around the 1960s (Boyce, 1964). Recently, applications of photogrammetry in biology and zoology have increased notably following the introduction of digital imaging and digital stereo-workstations. Digital stereo-workstations provide flexibility in the use of different imaging sensors. For example, normal and near-infrared (NIR) photography taken with different focal length (principal distance) cameras, and displaying different textures and colours may be viewed together stereoscopically. Improved sensor technology allows flexibility of lighting requirements. Consequently, it is straightforward to capture high-precision NIR images of nocturnal animals in total darkness. Improved photogrammetric software also allows the modelling of refraction of two-media and underwater applications
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