What makes a deep and self-directed learner: exploring factors that influence learning approaches and self-directed learning in a PBL context at a Malaysian private university

Kek, Megan Yih Chyn A. and Huijser, Henk (2009) What makes a deep and self-directed learner: exploring factors that influence learning approaches and self-directed learning in a PBL context at a Malaysian private university. In: PBL 2009: What Are We Learning About Learning?, 10-12 Jun 2009, Singapore.

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Abstract

This paper presents the findings of an empirical study of the relationships among students’ individual characteristics, family contexts, self-efficacy beliefs, learning environments, approaches to teaching and teacher factors, approaches to learning, academic attainment, self-directed learning readiness and mental health at a Malaysian private university. For this paper, only the outcome measure of self-directed learning is presented. The study was guided by Kek’s (2006) two-level integrated theoretical framework, designed to examine ‘student and teacher ecological systems’ and their influences on student learning and outcomes in higher education. Data from a large cross-sectional survey and structured in-depth interviews, for both students and teachers was analysed. Single-level quantitative analyses using partial least square path (PLSPATH) and multi-level analyses using the hierarchical linear modelling technique (HLM) were used. The survey data was drawn from a total of 44 PBL classrooms, 392 students and 32 teachers. Interviews were conducted with three teachers and 18 students. The PLSPATH findings revealed that parental involvement continued to influence how students learn and influence outcomes at the university level. A surface approach to learning was found to be related to poor quality outcomes and a deep approach to learning was related to high quality outcomes. The HLM analyses revealed which and how teaching factors directly and indirectly influenced approaches to learning and outcomes. The qualitative findings revealed types of parental involvement, peer group effects, complex relationships between memorising and higher cognitive processes in the learning process and effective teaching and learning environments for meaningful learning. In this paper, we will present a summary of the contextual factors that influence approaches to learning, and the outcome measure of self-directed learning readiness through two models: one model for a deep approach to learning and self-directed learning, and one for a surface approach to learning and self-directed learning. Holistic measures to develop deep approaches to learning and self-directed learning are suggested.


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Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Commonwealth Reporting Category E) (Paper)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Depositing User: Dr Hendrik Huijser
Faculty / Department / School: Historic - Learning and Teaching Support Unit
Date Deposited: 22 Jun 2009 23:48
Last Modified: 28 Aug 2014 05:25
Uncontrolled Keywords: contextual factors; family; learning environments; approaches to learning; self-directed learning; hierarchical linear modelling; path analysis
Fields of Research (FOR2008): 13 Education > 1301 Education Systems > 130103 Higher Education
13 Education > 1302 Curriculum and Pedagogy > 130202 Curriculum and Pedagogy Theory and Development
13 Education > 1303 Specialist Studies in Education > 130309 Learning Sciences
Socio-Economic Objective (SEO2008): E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970113 Expanding Knowledge in Education
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/5341

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