Craig, Ian and Aravinthan, Vasantha and Baillie, Craig Peter and Beswick, Alan and Barnes, Geoff and Bradbury, Ron and Connell, Luke and Cooper, Paul and Fellows, Christopher and Fitzmaurice, Li and Foley, Joseph P. and Hancock, Nigel and Lamb, David and Morrison, Pippa and Mossad, Ruth and Misra, R. K. and Pittaway, Pam and Prime, Emma and Rees, Steve and Schmidt, Erik and Solomon, David and Symes, Troy and Turnbull, David (2007) Evaporation, seepage and water quality management in storage dams: a review of research methods. Environmental Health, 7 (3). pp. 84-97. ISSN 1444-5212
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Official URL: http://journal.aieh.org.au/index.php?display=235
One of the most significant sources of water wastage in Australia is loss from small storage dams, either by seepage or evaporation. Over much of Australia, evaporative demand routinely exceeds precipitation. This paper outlines first, methodologies and measurement techniques to quantify the rate of evaporative loss from fresh water storages. These encompass high-accuracy water balance monitoring; determination of the validity of alternative estimation equations, in particular the FAO56 Penman- Monteith ETo methodology; and the commencement of CFD modeling to determine a 'dam factor' in relation to practical atmospheric measurement techniques. Second, because the application of chemical monolayers is the only feasible alternative to the high cost of physically covering the storages to retard evaporation, the use of cetyl alcohol-based monolayers is reviewed, and preliminary research on their degradation by photolytic action, by wind break-up and by microbial degradation reported. Similarly, preliminary research on monolayer visualisation techniques for field application is reported; and potential enhancement of monolayers by other chemicals and attendant water quality issues are considered.
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