Confirmatory factor analysis of the test of performance strategies (TOPS) among adolescent athletes

Lane, Andrew M. and Harwood, Chris and Terry, Peter C. and Karageorghis, Costas I. (2004) Confirmatory factor analysis of the test of performance strategies (TOPS) among adolescent athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences, 22 (9). pp. 803-812. ISSN 0264-0414

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to examine the factorial validity of the Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS; Thomas et al., 1999) among adolescent athletes using confirmatory factor analysis. The TOPS was designed to assess eight psychological strategies used in competition (i.e. activation, automaticity, emotional control, goal-setting, imagery, negative thinking, relaxation and self-talk,) and eight used in practice (the same strategies except negative thinking is replaced by attentional control). National-level athletes (n = 584) completed the 64-item TOPS during training camps. Fit indices provided partial support for the overall measurement model for the competition items (robust comparative fit index = 0.92, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.88, root mean square error of approximation = 0.05) but minimal support for the training items (robust comparative fit index = 0.86, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.81, root mean square error of approximation = 0.06). For the competition items, the automaticity, goal-setting, relaxation and self-talk scales showed good fit, whereas the activation, emotional control, imagery and negative thinking scales did not. For the practice items, the attentional control, emotional control, goal-setting, imagery and self-talk scales showed good fit, whereas the activation, automaticity and relaxation scales did not. Overall, it appears that the factorial validity of the TOPS for use with adolescents is questionable at present and further development is required.


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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Author version deposited in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.
Depositing User: Mrs Melissa Jarick
Faculty / Department / School: Historic - Faculty of Sciences - Department of Psychology
Date Deposited: 11 Oct 2007 01:20
Last Modified: 02 Jul 2013 22:49
Uncontrolled Keywords: measurement; model testing; psychological skills; structural equations
Fields of Research (FOR2008): 01 Mathematical Sciences > 0104 Statistics > 010406 Stochastic Analysis and Modelling
17 Psychology and Cognitive Sciences > 1701 Psychology > 170114 Sport and Exercise Psychology
11 Medical and Health Sciences > 1106 Human Movement and Sports Science > 110699 Human Movement and Sports Science not elsewhere classified
Socio-Economic Objective (SEO2008): E Expanding Knowledge > 97 Expanding Knowledge > 970117 Expanding Knowledge in Psychology and Cognitive Sciences
Identification Number or DOI: doi: 10.1080/02640410410001716689
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/3128

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