Effects of subsurface drip irrigation rates and furrow irrigation for cotton grown on a vertisol on off-site movement of sediments, nutrients and pesticides

McHugh, A. D. and Bhattarai, S. and Lotz, G. and Midmore, D. J. (2008) Effects of subsurface drip irrigation rates and furrow irrigation for cotton grown on a vertisol on off-site movement of sediments, nutrients and pesticides. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 28 (4). pp. 507-519. ISSN 1774-0746

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Abstract

Subsurface drip irrigation can reduce off-farm movements of fertilizers and pollutants and improve the water use efficiency of irrigated agriculture. Here we compared the effects of furrow and subsurface drip at different irrigation rates, based on a percentage of daily crop-evapotranspiration rates (ETc), on run-off and off-site movement of suspended sediment, nutrients and pesticides from cotton crops grown on a vertisol. Our results show that furrow irrigation significantly increased suspended soil loss, of 5.26 t ha−1, compared to that of subsurface drip irrigation at 120% of ETc, of 2.53 t ha−1, whereas no erosion was recorded with deficit subsurface drip irrigation. Off-site movement of nitrogen in furrow, of 18.63 kg ha−1, was five times greater than subsurface drip irrigation at 120% ETc. It was much less with 105% ETc (0.37 kg ha−1) and 90% ETc (0.15 kg ha−1), and absent for 75% and 50% of ETc. Phosphorus loss from furrow, of 778 g ha−1, was greater than for the wetter subsurface drip treatments that gave 23 g ha−1 for 90% ETc and 19 g ha−1 for 120% ETc. No P loss was recorded from drier subsurface drip irrigation rates. Herbicides such as atrazine and diuron were applied in the year prior to the experiment, but considerable amounts were recorded in furrow run-off in both years, but only at 90 and 120% ETc subsurface drip irrigation in the first year. Concentrations of applied herbicide residues in the runoff exceeded the minimum threshold level for 99% species protection and, although the total amount of herbicide movement was higher in furrow, at times the concentration was greater for wetter subsurface drip irrigation run-off. Residues of insecticides, such as endosulphan applied in a previous year and dimethoate applied in the current years, were recorded in runoff from subsurface drip at 120% and furrow irrigation. Their concentrations in each year exceeded minimum threshold level. Subsurface drip irrigation at 75% ETc offered the best trade-off between off-site run-off, erosion and pesticide movement and yield and water use efficiency.


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Item Type: Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)
Refereed: Yes
Item Status: Live Archive
Additional Information: Published version deposited in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.
Depositing User: Dr Allen (Jack) McHugh
Faculty / Department / School: Historic - Faculty of Engineering and Surveying - Department of Agricultural, Civil and Environmental Engineering
Date Deposited: 19 Oct 2011 23:31
Last Modified: 03 Jul 2013 00:48
Uncontrolled Keywords: furrow; subsurface drip; run-off; erosion; herbicide; nitrogen; phosphorus
Fields of Research (FOR2008): 07 Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences > 0701 Agriculture, Land and Farm Management > 070107 Farming Systems Research
07 Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences > 0799 Other Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences > 079901 Agricultural Hydrology (Drainage, Flooding, Irrigation, Quality, etc.)
09 Engineering > 0907 Environmental Engineering > 090703 Environmental Technologies
Socio-Economic Objective (SEO2008): D Environment > 96 Environment > 9609 Land and Water Management > 960905 Farmland, Arable Cropland and Permanent Cropland Water Management
Identification Number or DOI: doi: 10.1051/agro:2008034
URI: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/id/eprint/19726

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