Webb, Edward L. and Dhakal, Arun (2011) Patterns and drivers of fuelwood collection and tree planting in a Middle Hill watershed of Nepal. Biomass and Bioenergy, 35 (1). pp. 121-132. ISSN 0961-9534
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Identification Number or DOI: doi: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2010.08.023
The majority of residents in the rural Middle Hills of Nepal use fuelwood from public and private sources as their primary energy source. This study investigated fuelwood availability in accessed forests, amount of fuelwood collected, preferred tree species for fuelwood, contribution of public and private sources to total fuelwood consumption, and investment in tree planting on agricultural land. Fuelwood availability declined in the decades prior to 1990, but stabilized by 1990. Fuelwood from fifty-three species was collected from forests. Median annual per capita collection was 683 kg and predicted only by family size. Occupational castes(‘low castes’) did not show different harvesting rates than non-occupational castes and noncaste ethnic groups. Wealth was not associated with total fuelwood collection, probably because there was no fuelwood market. Most households collected fuelwood from a private source, namely trees planted on sloping, rain-fed agricultural land (bari), but this accounted for only a small portion of most households' requirement. Bari landholding area and livestock holdings -typical measures of wealth- drove the decision to plant trees on bari land, and the number of trees that were planted. Bari-poor and landless households were consequently the most vulnerable to forest degradation, so the promotion of private fuelwood planting by large bari landholders could reduce pressure on forests and promote greater fuelwood availability for landless households. Support of community forestry emphasizing access for bari-poor and landless families could further decrease fuelwood vulnerability of poorer households.
|Item Type:||Article (Commonwealth Reporting Category C)|
|Additional Information:||Permanent restricted access to published version due to publisher copyright policy.|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||caste, dependency, ethnicity, firewood, Himalaya, livelihood; Nepal|
|Fields of Research (FOR2008):||05 Environmental Sciences > 0502 Environmental Science and Management > 050209 Natural Resource Management|
05 Environmental Sciences > 0502 Environmental Science and Management > 050206 Environmental Monitoring
|Socio-Economic Objective (SEO2008):||D Environment > 96 Environment > 9608 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity > 960806 Forest and Woodlands Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity|
D Environment > 96 Environment > 9606 Environmental and Natural Resource Evaluation > 960607 Rural Land Evaluation
|Deposited On:||26 Jul 2011 11:18|
|Last Modified:||21 Jun 2012 15:28|
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