Kek, Megan and Huijser, Henk (2011) Exploring the combined relationships of student and teacher factors on learning approaches and self-directed learning readiness at a Malaysian university. Studies in Higher Education, 36 (2). pp. 185-208. ISSN 0307-5079
This article presents the findings of a study of the interrelationships between students' individual characteristics, self-efficacy beliefs, parental involvement, university and classroom learning environments; and teachers' individual characteristics, teaching efficacies, university and classroom learning environments, teacher outcomes and approaches to teaching, approaches to learning (deep and surface learning) and self-directed learning readiness. The study was guided by a two-level integrated theoretical framework, designed to examine 'student and teacher ecological systems' and their influences on student learning and outcomes. Data was drawn from 392 students and 32 teachers situated in 44 problem-based learning classrooms from three study levels at a Malaysian private medical university. The analyses, through hierarchical linear modelling, revealed what and how personal, family, learning environment and teacher factors directly influenced approaches to learning and self-directed learning readiness. Implications for teaching in higher education are discussed.
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