Keogh, Diane U. (2012) Developing motor vehicle emission inventories and air quality regulation for ultrafine particles. In: Advances in nanotechnology, vol. 8. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York, United States, pp. 383-400. ISBN 978-1-61324-062-5
Most particle emissions generated by motor vehicle fleets are ultrafine size (diameters < 0.1 µm) and measured in terms of particle number. These sized particles are not routinely monitored nor are they regulated by ambient air quality standards. In urban areas around the world travel demand and dependence on private motor vehicle travel is increasing, and thereby potentially contributing higher concentrations of ultrafine particles to urban airsheds. Heavy duty vehicles (HDVs) continue to be a major freight mode. HDVs are particularly high emitters of ultrafine particles and can release over an order of magnitude more particles (in terms of particle number) than petrol-fuelled vehicles, with a significant number in the ultrafine size range.
The health effects associated with exposure to particulate matter are well-documented. These are known to be serious, and a number of epidemiological studies have linked exposure to increases in hospital admissions, various respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and mortality. However, more epidemiological studies of the effects of ultrafine particles are needed, as well as development of motor vehicle emission inventories for ultrafine fine particles. These studies are vital to inform exposure assessment in terms of health, transport and land use planning.
Current knowledge about levels of total particulate matter generated by urban motor vehicle fleets, including of ultrafine particle emissions, remain the subject of considerable uncertainty. This limited knowledge has severely impeded our ability to develop effective and relevant ambient air quality standards and strategies to manage and control ultrafine particle emissions. Such regulation is critical for two reasons. Firstly, ultrafine particles are the main source of vehicle fleet emissions. Secondly, because debate is presently focused on the notion that particle number is more directly related to health effects than particle mass. This chapter discusses some of the scientific and practical issues and challenges associated with developing ultrafine particle inventories for motor vehicle fleets and air quality regulation. It also introduces the world’s first published inventory of motor vehicle fleet emissions for particle number.
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|Item Type:||Book Chapter (Commonwealth Reporting Category B)|
|Publisher:||Nova Science Publishers, Inc.|
|Item Status:||Live Archive|
|Additional Information (displayed to public):||Chapter 11. c. Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Permanent restricted access to published version due to publisher copyright policy. Print copy not held in the USQ Library.|
|Depositing User:||Dr Shahbaz Mushtaq|
|Faculty / Department / School:||Current - USQ Other|
|Date Deposited:||09 Feb 2012 06:55|
|Last Modified:||06 Oct 2014 22:24|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||air quality regulation, inventories, motor vehicle emissions, nanoparticles, particulate matter, secondary particle formation, tailpipe emissions, ultrafine particles|
|Fields of Research (FoR):||05 Environmental Sciences > 0599 Other Environmental Sciences > 059999 Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified
09 Engineering > 0902 Automotive Engineering > 090205 Hybrid Vehicles and Powertrains
03 Chemical Sciences > 0301 Analytical Chemistry > 030106 Quality Assurance, Chemometrics, Traceability and Metrological Chemistry
|Socio-Economic Objective (SEO):||B Economic Development > 88 Transport > 8898 Environmentally Sustainable Transport > 889802 Management of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transport Activities
D Environment > 96 Environment > 9601 Air Quality > 960199 Air Quality not elsewhere classified
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